Last week I noticed brown mushrooms in my yard only at the four magnolia … If you push on them with your fingernail, they come off. These insecticides are sprayed onto the plant or applied to its roots. It is one of the most polyphagous insects known, reported from 75 different plant families. These insecticides contain oil in a form that will mix with water. That’s one reason that the mild weather of spring is an excellent time to use them. Neem oil products work by suffocating the insect. Scale insects may be resistant to some pesticides (read the pesticide label to be sure), but they can’t live if they can’t breathe. Generally cause little damage. False Oleander Scale A second cause of white spots on magnolia trees is the insect pest called false oleander scale, which feeds on a variety of trees. Oils are also effective against aphids, whiteflies, spider mites and the crawler stage of scales, yet they are less harmful than other insecticides to beneficial predatory insects. False oleander scale (Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli) A damaging population of false oleander scales will cause leaves to yellow and eventually defoliate. Insecticides and horticultural oils are effective for controlling immature scales. Hosts Commonly Attacked. When killed, the armor covering on females will continue clinging to the plant. in 1942. False oleander scale is common throughout many southern states but just reaches the very warmest parts of North Carolina. Regular applications of a horticultural oil such as Bonide All-Seasons Horticultural and Dormant Oil will help. Scale insects are small, inconspicuous insects that use hair-like mouthparts to extract plant sap from leaves or branches. Dan Gill's garden advice: Spray oleander bushes to prevent scale insects My oleander bush has white spots on the leaves. Treatment involves pouring the mixed insecticide at the base of the plant. If the insects are on the underside of the leaves and the oil is only applied to the upper surface, it will have no effect on them. False oleander scale feeds on the leaves of hundreds of plant species is a major pest of ornamental plants in nurseries and landscapes. Tea scale insects are about the size of a hyphen, appear slightly fuzzy and are white or brown. At this stage, they are called crawlers, and they are very tiny. With a plastic spoon, I scraped off the scales. Treatment involves pouring the mixed insecticide at the base of the plant. For proper control, it is critical to apply the oil spray over every surface of the plant. False oleander scales occur wherever sagos grow in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11. False oleander scale is not a good name since this insect attacks over 100 plant species, including Southern magnolia, sweetbay magnolia, aucuba, and English ivy, as well as oleander. The adult female oleander scale is an armored scale that is about 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) long and oval. False oleander scales. Almost 40% of the Clemson Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic sample submissions for home landscapes during 2012 and 2013 were scale insect pests, and of these, almost 90% of the species were the more difficult to control armored scales. Oil sprays are best used when the temperature is between 45 and 85 degrees, and they should only be applied to plants that are not in stress. Brand names of spray oils include Volck (use only during cool weather), All Seasons and Year-Round. In addition to oleander, false oleander scale also attacks aucuba, banana shrub, palms, including sago palm, and magnolias. These insects can secrete a waxy covering that protects them from the environme… These insects are more vulnerable to sprays at that particular time in their life cycle than at other periods, and that time is generally late summer. Females lay small, oval, yellow colored eggs underneath the armor. Spray the magnolia tree with a fungicide to control any remaining spores and stop the fungal disease from spreading. An added benefit of oil sprays is that they also help clean the unsightly sooty mold from the plant. Flip over suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches with a thumbnail. You may find them feeding on trees, shrubs and even on indoor plants. Do not expect adult scale to fall off after an insecticide treatment. Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli is believed to have been introduced into the U.S. from southern Asia.. Life Cycle. Scale insects are a diverse group of piercing-sucking pests (Hemiptera) commonly found on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries. Four infested leaves per tree by the scales. Magnolia white scale, Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Cooley), (known formerly as the false oleander scale) is an invasive Asian scale found in the southern United States. Because scale insects are difficult to kill, one or two follow-up applications should be made after the first one. Crawlers can be controlled with contact insecticides such as insecticidal soap or malathion, but most gardeners never notice them and miss the opportunity. False oleander scale is not a good name since this insect attacks over 100 plant species, including Southern magnolia, sweetbay magnolia, aucuba, and English ivy, as well as oleander. As scale insects feed on the sugary sap of a plant, they excrete some of the sugar as a liquid called honeydew. When a soft body is beneatha cover, the plant is likely to have live armored scales. Prune off heavily infested portions of the magnolia if the scale is limited to certain branches. They are a major pest of camellias and some hollies. For other species, efficacy levels varied with the active ingredient and method/timing of … Photo by Dan Gill/LSU AgCenter, False oleander scale on magnolia. Even more common is the growth of fungal organisms that produce an unattractive black coating on the leaves called sooty mold. Q: Any idea what these are on my magnolia leaves and what to do about them? Armoured Scale; Fullaway Oleander Scale; Magnolia White Scale; Mango Scale; Oyster Scale; Synonymy Names. scale, citrus mealybug and Mexican mealybug, generally mediocre to excellent control of false oleander scale, Fletcher scale, Florida wax scale, magnolia scale, and poor control of armored scale. There are over 180 species of scale insects in Florida, but only a small percentage are important pests of ornamental plants (Dekle 1976; Hamon and Williams 1984). Asian cycad scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui) and false oleander scale (Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli) are the most common pests of this type known to plague cycads. Magnolia spp.. False oleander scale (FOS) can be a serious pest of southern magnolia, palms, and aucuba. False Oleander scale (Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli) Greedy scale (Hemiberlesia rapax), tea scale (Fiorinia theae), and scurfy scale (Chionaspis furfura) have been diagnosed as pests on Southern magnolia in South Carolina landscapes. Thereafter, I sprayed it with Garden Safe insecticide and also used BAYER ADVANCED All-in-One Rose and Flower Care Concentrate as they were readily available. If the coverings are removed, the female body is yellow, while the male scale is brownish yellow. Origin. When the scale feed on the sap, they ingest the toxic insecticide and are killed. Light, paraffinic oil, such as Year-Round spray oil and All Seasons spray oil, however, can be used during the summer. ©2020 Walter Reeves / The Simple Gardener, Inc. All Rights Reserved. At one time this insect was called magnolia white scale and oleander scale. To control magnolia scale successfully, you must spray the insecticide (for example, malathion or acephate) at the right time in this insect's life cycle (namely, when it is in the crawler stage). Consequences of … Systemic insecticides are another option for controlling scale. My Little Gem Magnolia tree is infected with Magnolia Scale (like this one pictured). It was first found in Florida at Meade Gardens, Winter Park, Orange County, by J. R. Springer on sweetbay (Magnolia virginianaL.) Armored scales like this are very difficult to control when mature. Insecticidal soap, made from potassium salt of fatty acids, works by penetrating and destroying the outer shell or membrane of the insect causing it to dehydrate and die. In fact this scale is also known as magnolia white scale. In Mississippi landscapes, heaviest infestations are most often seen on sago palms or magnolias. Whenthe bump itself can be squashed it is likely to be some othertype of scale. Hosts include cycads, gardenia, English ivy, magnolia, bischofia, camellia, oleander, palmetto and more than 100 other It’s easy to find imidacloprid, sold as as Bayer Advanced Tree and Shrub Insect Control. Introduction. The treatments target the crawlers, not the adults. Check plants for live scale infestations. Heavy infestations can cause premature leaf drop and unthrifty plants. Many scales produce crawlers in the spring. Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. Finding scale insects on your sago palms (Cycas revoluta) is no laughing matter, so you want to learn how to treat scale on sago palms quickly.The false oleander scale and the Asian cycad scale both feed on the sap of sago palms. A second option is the insecticide dinotefuran, sold as Safari. It is now widespread in Florida, Georgia and Alabama, and probably occurs in all of the Gul… Leaf Spots (fungi – Coniothyrium sp., Epicoccum sp., Glomerella sp., Phyllosticta sp., and Septoria sp. It has a waxy covering that is whiter than olive scale with a yellow or light brown spot near the center. For established infestations, apply a second application in two weeks. Horticultural oils are often effective and relatively safe on beneficial organisms. REINERT: CONTROLLING FALSE OLEANDER SCALE 519 an infestation, growing on the honeydew given off selected for study. Most gardeners never notice these crawlers. Photo by Doug Caldwell Look for white specks or larger, clusters of this insect. Avoid the use of broad-spectrum insecticides that harm populations of beneficial scale predators. The safest effective way to control scale is with a horticultural oil spray. Acephate, imidacloprid and dinotefuran are three commonly used systemic insecticides that are effective against scale. Algal Leaf Spot (alga – Cephaleuros virescens): Forms a velvety coating with reddish-brown hair-like structures on the underside of the leaves. In 1953, G. B. Merrill reported the distribution in Florida as Orange and Leon counties. The honeydew accumulates on the foliage and can cause it to look shiny and feel sticky. When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales or mealybugs. And sooty mold does not occur with some scales, such as tea scale. When the scale feed on the sap, they ingest the toxic insecticide and are killed. Many gardeners don’t recognize there is a problem until the plant is heavily infested and damage has occurred. Photo by Dan Gill/LSU Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Dinotefuran will provide a much quicker kill than imidacloprid. Scales also cover themselves with waxy material that protects and hides them. Special notes regarding chemical management of magnolia scale: Insecticidal soaps and horticultural oils are good choices as they have a limited impact on beneficial insects (like lady bugs) that may attack magnolia scale. 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